Chapter 4: Designing Agentic Workflows with LLMs and TypeScript

4.1 Introduction to Agentic Workflows with LLMs and TypeScript

Welcome to the heart of our course, where we explore the exciting realm of designing agentic workflows that leverage the power of Large Language Models (LLMs) and the versatility of TypeScript. In this chapter, we will delve into the core concepts and architectural patterns that enable the creation of self-directed, adaptive, and intelligent systems.

Agentic workflows are a cutting-edge approach to building software applications, where the focus shifts from rigid, predefined processes to flexible, autonomous decision-making. By integrating LLMs, which possess remarkable natural language understanding and generation capabilities, with the type-safety and development tools offered by TypeScript, we can empower our workflows to adapt to changing circumstances, learn from experience, and make contextually-aware choices.

Throughout this chapter, you will discover the key benefits of this synergistic approach, as well as the unique challenges that come with designing such complex and dynamic systems. We will start by exploring the foundations of modeling domain-specific knowledge, defining decision-making logic, and implementing feedback loops – the building blocks of agentic workflows. Then, we will dive into advanced architectural patterns, reliability considerations, scaling strategies, and maintainability practices to equip you with a comprehensive understanding of this transformative field.

By the end of this chapter, you will be well-equipped to architect and implement agentic workflows that harness the power of LLMs and TypeScript, unlocking new possibilities for intelligent, adaptive, and efficient software solutions.

4.2 Modeling Domain-Specific Knowledge

The first step in designing agentic workflows is to establish a solid understanding of the problem domain. This involves accurately modeling the relevant concepts, entities, and relationships that define the context in which the workflow will operate.

In this sub-chapter, you will learn how to effectively represent domain-specific knowledge using TypeScript's type system and data structures. We will begin by identifying the key entities and their attributes, exploring techniques for defining hierarchical relationships, and modeling the complex interactions between them.

For example, let's consider a workflow for a smart home automation system. The relevant domain knowledge might include entities such as Room, Appliance, Sensor, and User, each with their own properties and methods. We can define these entities as TypeScript interfaces or classes, ensuring type safety and creating a shared understanding of the problem space.

interface Room {
  id: string;
  name: string;
  temperature: number;
  humidity: number;
  occupants: User[];
  appliances: Appliance[];

interface Appliance {
  id: string;
  name: string;
  type: 'light' | 'thermostat' | 'tv';
  power: number;
  isOn: boolean;
  controlledBy: User[];

interface Sensor {
  id: string;
  type: 'temperature' | 'humidity' | 'motion';
  value: number;
  location: Room;

interface User {
  id: string;
  name: string;
  role: 'resident' | 'guest' | 'admin';
  preferences: {
    desiredTemperature: number;
    desiredHumidity: number;

By clearly defining these domain entities and their relationships, we establish a shared vocabulary and a solid foundation for building agentic workflows. This allows us to create decision-making logic that is grounded in the specific problem context, making the workflows more intuitive, adaptable, and effective.

As you progress through this section, you will also explore techniques for modeling complex business rules, representing temporal and spatial information, and handling dynamic changes within the domain. These skills will enable you to create comprehensive and flexible representations of the problem space, setting the stage for the next steps in designing agentic workflows.

Key Takeaways:

  • Effectively model domain-specific knowledge using TypeScript interfaces and classes
  • Define entities, their attributes, and the relationships between them
  • Establish a shared understanding of the problem space to support the development of agentic workflows
  • Explore techniques for handling complex business rules, temporal and spatial data, and dynamic changes within the domain

4.3 Defining Decision-Making Logic

With a solid foundation of domain knowledge in place, the next critical step in designing agentic workflows is to define the decision-making logic. This is the core of your workflow, responsible for enabling intelligent, context-aware choices that drive the system's behavior.

In this sub-chapter, you will learn how to leverage the power of Large Language Models (LLMs) in combination with TypeScript to create adaptive and responsive decision-making algorithms. We will explore various approaches, including rule-based systems, machine learning models, and hybrid strategies, each with its own strengths and trade-offs.

Let's consider the smart home automation example again. Suppose we want to create a decision-making system that can automatically adjust the temperature and lighting in a room based on the occupants' preferences and the current environmental conditions.

One approach could be to implement a rule-based system using TypeScript. We can define a set of if-then-else rules that consider factors such as the room's temperature, humidity, occupancy, and the users' desired settings.

function adjustRoomSettings(room: Room): void {
  const { temperature, humidity, occupants } = room;
  const desiredTemp = occupants.reduce((sum, user) => sum + user.preferences.desiredTemperature, 0) / occupants.length;
  const desiredHumidity = occupants.reduce((sum, user) => sum + user.preferences.desiredHumidity, 0) / occupants.length;

  if (temperature < desiredTemp - 1) {
    // Turn on the thermostat to increase temperature
    room.appliances.find(a => a.type === 'thermostat')?.setTemperature(desiredTemp);
  } else if (temperature > desiredTemp + 1) {
    // Turn on the air conditioning to decrease temperature
    room.appliances.find(a => a.type === 'thermostat')?.setTemperature(desiredTemp);

  if (humidity < desiredHumidity - 5) {
    // Turn on a humidifier
    room.appliances.find(a => a.type === 'humidifier')?.turnOn();
  } else if (humidity > desiredHumidity + 5) {
    // Turn on a dehumidifier
    room.appliances.find(a => a.type === 'dehumidifier')?.turnOn();

Alternatively, we could leverage the natural language understanding capabilities of LLMs to create a more adaptive decision-making system. By integrating an LLM-powered natural language processing (NLP) pipeline, we can enable the workflow to interpret user preferences, environmental conditions, and contextual information in a more nuanced and flexible way.

async function adjustRoomSettingsWithLLM(room: Room, userInput: string): Promise<void> {
  const { temperature, humidity, occupants } = room;
  const llmResponse = await processUserInputWithLLM(userInput, { temperature, humidity, occupants });
  const { desiredTemp, desiredHumidity } = llmResponse;

  // Adjust the room's temperature and humidity based on the LLM's recommendations
  if (temperature < desiredTemp - 1) {
    room.appliances.find(a => a.type === 'thermostat')?.setTemperature(desiredTemp);
  } else if (temperature > desiredTemp + 1) {
    room.appliances.find(a => a.type === 'thermostat')?.setTemperature(desiredTemp);

  if (humidity < desiredHumidity - 5) {
    room.appliances.find(a => a.type === 'humidifier')?.turnOn();
  } else if (humidity > desiredHumidity + 5) {
    room.appliances.find(a => a.type === 'dehumidifier')?.turnOn();

In this example, the processUserInputWithLLM function represents the integration of an LLM-powered NLP pipeline that can interpret natural language requests, extract relevant information (such as desired temperature and humidity), and provide recommendations for adjusting the room settings.

By exploring both rule-based and LLM-powered approaches, you will gain a deeper understanding of the trade-offs and considerations involved in defining decision-making logic for agentic workflows. This knowledge will enable you to design adaptable and intelligent systems that can handle complex, real-world scenarios.

Key Takeaways:

  • Implement decision-making logic using rule-based systems, machine learning models, and hybrid approaches
  • Leverage the natural language understanding capabilities of LLMs to create more flexible and adaptive decision-making processes
  • Explore the trade-offs and considerations involved in defining decision-making logic for agentic workflows
  • Understand how to integrate LLM-powered NLP pipelines to enhance the contextual awareness and responsiveness of your workflows

4.4 Implementing Feedback Loops

Agentic workflows are not static; they must be capable of continuously learning and improving over time. This is where feedback loops play a crucial role, allowing the system to monitor its own performance, identify areas for enhancement, and automatically refine its decision-making processes.

In this sub-chapter, you will learn how to design and implement feedback loops within your agentic workflows, empowering them to adapt and evolve based on real-world experiences.

Let's revisit the smart home automation example and consider how we can introduce feedback loops to enhance the system's adaptability.

One approach is to implement a mechanism for collecting and analyzing user feedback. Whenever the occupants of a room interact with the system, we can gather their subjective assessments of the room's comfort level and their satisfaction with the system's decisions.

interface UserFeedback {
  roomId: string;
  userId: string;
  comfortLevel: number; // Scale of 1-10
  satisfactionLevel: number; // Scale of 1-10
  timestamp: Date;

async function collectUserFeedback(room: Room, user: User): Promise<void> {
  const feedback: UserFeedback = {
    comfortLevel: await promptUserForComfortLevel(),
    satisfactionLevel: await promptUserForSatisfactionLevel(),
    timestamp: new Date()

  // Store the feedback for later analysis
  await storeUserFeedback(feedback);

With this user feedback data, we can then train machine learning models to identify patterns and correlations between the environmental conditions, user preferences, and the system's performance. These models can be integrated back into the decision-making logic, allowing the workflow to continuously refine its strategies and adapt to the users' needs.

async function trainFeedbackModel(feedbackData: UserFeedback[]): Promise<FeedbackModel> {
  // Train a machine learning model to predict comfort and satisfaction levels
  const model = await trainModel(feedbackData);
  return model;

async function updateDecisionMakingWithFeedbackModel(room: Room, feedbackModel: FeedbackModel): Promise<void> {
  const { temperature, humidity, occupants } = room;
  const predictedComfort = await feedbackModel.predictComfortLevel(temperature, humidity, occupants);
  const predictedSatisfaction = await feedbackModel.predictSatisfactionLevel(temperature, humidity, occupants);

  // Adjust the room settings based on the predicted comfort and satisfaction levels
  if (predictedComfort < 7) {
    // Adjust the temperature and humidity to improve comfort
  } else if (predictedSatisfaction < 8) {
    // Tweak the settings to better align with user preferences
    adjustRoomSettingsWithLLM(room, 'Please make the room more comfortable');

In this example, the trainFeedbackModel function uses the collected user feedback data to train a machine learning model that can predict the comfort and satisfaction levels based on the room's environmental conditions and occupants. The updateDecisionMakingWithFeedbackModel function then integrates this feedback model into the decision-making logic, allowing the system to continuously optimize the room settings to better meet the users' needs.

By implementing these feedback loops, your agentic workflows will become self-aware, learning from their interactions and improving their decision-making over time. This adaptive capability is a key characteristic of effective agentic workflows, enabling them to remain responsive and relevant in the face of changing conditions and user requirements.

Key Takeaways:

  • Implement feedback loops to enable continuous learning and improvement within your agentic workflows
  • Collect user feedback and store it for later analysis and model training
  • Train machine learning models to identify patterns and correlations in the feedback data
  • Integrate the feedback models back into the decision-making logic to enhance the system's adaptability
  • Understand how feedback loops contribute to the self-aware and self-improving nature of agentic workflows

4.5 Architectural Patterns for Agentic Workflows

As you progress in designing agentic workflows, it's crucial to explore the various architectural patterns that can facilitate their implementation and support their long-term scalability and maintainability.

In this sub-chapter, you will learn about several architectural patterns that are well-suited for agentic workflows, each with its own unique strengths and considerations.

Event-Driven Architecture: An event-driven architecture (EDA) is a natural fit for agentic workflows, as it aligns with the dynamic and reactive nature of these systems. In an EDA, components communicate by publishing and subscribing to events, which allows for loosely coupled and asynchronous interactions. This can be particularly beneficial for handling the real-time events and data streams that are often associated with agentic workflows.

Microservices Architecture: Microservices architecture is another pattern that can be highly effective for agentic workflows. By breaking down the workflow into smaller, independently deployable services, you can achieve better scalability, modularity, and fault tolerance. This is especially useful when different components of the workflow require different technological stacks or have varying performance and reliability requirements.

Serverless Functions: Serverless functions, such as those offered by cloud computing platforms, can be a powerful tool for implementing agentic workflows. Serverless functions allow you to focus on the core business logic of your workflow, without having to manage the underlying infrastructure. This can be particularly beneficial for handling the variable and unpredictable workloads that are often associated with agentic workflows.

Hybrid Approaches: In some cases, a hybrid approach that combines multiple architectural patterns may be the most effective solution for agentic workflows. For example, you could utilize a microservices architecture for the core workflow components, while leveraging serverless functions for specific tasks or integrations with external services.

As you explore these architectural patterns, consider factors such as scalability, fault tolerance, performance, and maintainability. Evaluate how each pattern can support the unique requirements of your agentic workflow, such as the need for real-time decision-making, adaptive behavior, and seamless integration with external systems.

By choosing the right architectural patterns, you can create agentic workflows that are scalable, modular, and resilient, paving the way for successful long-term deployments.

Key Takeaways:

  • Understand the benefits and trade-offs of event-driven architectures, microservices, and serverless functions for agentic workflows
  • Evaluate how different architectural patterns can support the unique requirements of your agentic workflows
  • Consider factors like scalability, fault tolerance, performance, and maintainability when selecting architectural patterns
  • Explore hybrid approaches that combine multiple patterns to address the specific needs of your agentic workflow

4.6 Ensuring Reliability and Robustness

As you design and implement agentic workflows, it's essential to prioritize reliability and robustness to ensure your systems can withstand failures and continue to operate effectively.

In this sub-chapter, you will learn about various techniques and strategies for building resilient agentic workflows, from fault tolerance and error handling to graceful degradation and monitoring.

Fault Tolerance: Agentic workflows often involve complex interdependencies and real-time data streams, making them susceptible to various types of failures. Implementing fault tolerance mechanisms, such as circuit breakers, retries, and fallbacks, can help your workflows gracefully handle these failures and maintain a high level of availability.

Error Handling: Proper error handling is crucial for agentic workflows, as errors can occur at various stages of the decision-making process, data processing, or system integration. You'll learn how to design robust error handling strategies, including comprehensive logging, exception management, and error escalation, to ensure your workflows can recover from unexpected situations.

Graceful Degradation: In the event of a partial failure or resource constraints, your agentic workflows should be able to degrade gracefully, preserving critical functionality and maintaining a satisfactory level of service. This may involve techniques such as load shedding, dynamic resource allocation, and fallback mechanisms to ensure your workflows can adapt to changing conditions.

Monitoring and Observability: Effective monitoring and observability are essential for maintaining the reliability of agentic workflows. You'll explore tools and techniques for collecting, analyzing, and visualizing metrics, logs, and traces, enabling you to quickly identify and address performance bottlenecks, security vulnerabilities, and operational issues.

Debugging and Troubleshooting: Debugging complex, adaptive systems like agentic workflows can be a